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About First World War Pdf Download
The First World War, also known as the Great War or the World War, was one of the most devastating conflicts in human history. It lasted from 1914 to 1918 and involved more than 70 million military personnel from over 30 countries. It resulted in an estimated 20 million deaths and 21 million wounded, as well as massive social, political, and economic changes in Europe and beyond. It also marked the beginning of a new era of global warfare, technology, and diplomacy.
About First World War Pdf Download
Learning about the First World War is essential for understanding the history of the 20th century and its impact on the present day. However, reading books or articles about such a complex and multifaceted topic can be challenging and time-consuming. That's why downloading a pdf file about the First World War can be a great way to access concise, reliable, and engaging information about this important subject.
In this article, we will explore the causes, events, consequences, and legacy of the First World War. We will also show you how to download a pdf file about the war from various sources and websites. By reading this article, you will gain a better understanding of what happened during this global conflict and why it matters today.
Causes of the First World War
The First World War was triggered by a series of events that took place in Europe in the summer of 1914. However, these events were rooted in deeper historical factors that had been building up for decades.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the July Crisis
On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Bosnia was a province that Austria-Hungary had annexed in 1908, angering Serbia, which wanted to create a larger Slavic state in the Balkans. The assassination sparked a diplomatic crisis between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, which escalated into a war when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28.
The alliance system and the balance of power
The war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia soon involved other European powers that had formed alliances with each other for mutual protection and influence. On one side, there was the Triple Entente, composed of France, Russia, and Britain. France and Russia had formed an alliance in 1894 to counter the growing power of Germany, which had unified in 1871 and had become an economic and military rival. Britain had joined the alliance in 1907 to maintain its naval supremacy and its interests in the colonies. On the other side, there was the Triple Alliance, composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Germany and Austria-Hungary had formed an alliance in 1879 to support each other in case of a war with Russia or France. Italy had joined the alliance in 1882 to gain support for its territorial ambitions in Africa and the Mediterranean.
When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia mobilized its army to support its Slavic ally. This prompted Germany to declare war on Russia on August 1, and on France on August 3, as part of its plan to defeat both enemies quickly by invading France through Belgium. However, this violated Belgium's neutrality, which Britain had guaranteed by a treaty in 1839. As a result, Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, bringing the entire Triple Entente into the war against the Triple Alliance. Italy, however, remained neutral until 1915, when it switched sides and joined the Entente in exchange for promises of territorial gains.
Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism
The alliance system was not the only cause of the First World War. It was also fueled by nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Nationalism was the idea that people who shared a common language, culture, or history should have their own independent nation-state. This idea inspired many nationalist movements in Europe, especially in the Balkans, where different ethnic groups wanted to break free from the rule of Austria-Hungary or the Ottoman Empire. Nationalism also created tensions between existing nation-states, such as France and Germany, which competed for prestige and influence.
Imperialism was the policy of expanding a country's power and wealth by acquiring colonies or territories overseas. This policy led to a scramble for Africa and Asia among the European powers, especially Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. Imperialism also created rivalries and conflicts over spheres of influence and access to resources and markets.
Militarism was the glorification of war and the military as a source of national pride and strength. This attitude encouraged the European powers to build up their armies and navies and to develop new weapons and technologies. Militarism also created a sense of insecurity and fear among the countries, as they felt threatened by each other's military capabilities.
Major Events of the First World War
The First World War lasted for four years and involved many battles and campaigns on different fronts. The main fronts were the Western Front in France and Belgium, the Eastern Front in Russia and Eastern Europe, the Gallipoli Campaign in Turkey, the Middle East Front in Mesopotamia and Palestine, and the Naval War in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
The Western Front and trench warfare
The Western Front was the most important and deadly front of the war. It stretched from the North Sea to the Swiss border and saw some of the most famous battles of the war, such as the Battle of the Marne (1914), the Battle of Verdun (1916), the Battle of the Somme (1916), and the Battle of Passchendaele (1917). The Western Front was characterized by trench warfare, a type of warfare that involved digging long lines of trenches to protect soldiers from enemy fire and artillery. Trench warfare resulted in a stalemate between the two sides, as neither could advance or break through the enemy's defenses. Trench warfare also exposed soldiers to horrible conditions such as mud, rats, lice, disease, gas attacks, shell shock, and constant fear of death.
The Eastern Front and the collapse of Russia
The Eastern Front was less static than the Western Front but more fluid and chaotic. It stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea and saw battles between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey on one side, and Russia, Romania, Serbia on the other side. The Eastern Front witnessed some of the largest movements of troops and prisoners of war during the war. The Eastern Front also saw some of the most decisive victories and defeats for both sides. For example, Germany defeated Russia at the Battle of Tannenberg (1914) and drove it out of Poland at the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive (1915). However, Russia also inflicted heavy losses on Austria-Hungary at the Brusilov Offensive (1916) and forced Turkey to retreat from Armenia at the Battle of Sarikamish (1914-15).
The Gallipoli Campaign and the Middle East
The Gallipoli Campaign was an attempt by the Allies to open a new front in the war by landing troops on the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey and capturing Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The campaign lasted from April 1915 to January 1916 and involved troops from Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, India, and Newfoundland. However, the campaign was a failure, as the Allies faced strong resistance from the Turkish forces and suffered heavy casualties. The campaign also had a significant impact on the national identity and memory of Australia and New Zealand, which commemorate it every year on Anzac Day.
The Middle East Front was another front where the Allies tried to weaken the Ottoman Empire and secure their interests in the region. The front involved campaigns in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Persia (modern Iran). The front saw some of the most famous figures and events of the war, such as T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia), who led an Arab revolt against the Turks; General Edmund Allenby, who captured Jerusalem and Damascus; and the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which divided the Middle East into spheres of influence for Britain and France.
The naval war and the U-boat campaign
The naval war was a crucial aspect of the First World War, as it affected the trade and supply of both sides. The naval war involved battles between surface ships, such as the Battle of Jutland (1916), which was the only major naval engagement of the war; raids and blockades by cruisers and submarines; and mines and torpedoes. The most controversial and influential part of the naval war was the U-boat campaign, which was a strategy by Germany to use submarines (U-boats) to sink merchant ships that carried goods and passengers to Britain and its allies. The U-boat campaign violated international law and provoked outrage among neutral countries, especially the United States, which lost several ships and civilians to U-boat attacks. The U-boat campaign was one of the main reasons why the United States entered the war in 1917.
The United States and the entry of new allies
The United States was initially neutral in the First World War, but it gradually became more involved in supporting the Allies with loans, supplies, and volunteers. The United States also had several disputes with Germany over its U-boat campaign, its interference with American trade, and its attempts to incite Mexico to join the war against the United States. The final straw for the United States was the Zimmermann Telegram, which was a secret message from Germany to Mexico that proposed an alliance and promised to help Mexico recover its lost territories in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and revealed to the American public in March 1917. This outraged American opinion and convinced President Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress for a declaration of war on Germany on April 2, 1917.
The entry of the United States into the war gave a huge boost to the Allies' morale and resources. It also encouraged other countries to join or rejoin the war on their side. For example, China declared war on Germany in August 1917 to gain a seat at the future peace conference; Brazil declared war on Germany in October 1917 after several of its ships were sunk by U-boats; Greece declared war on Bulgaria and Turkey in June 1917 after a coup d'etat that removed its pro-German king; Romania rejoined the war in November 1918 after being occupied by Germany since 1916.
Consequences of the First World War
The First World War had profound and lasting consequences for millions of people around the world. It changed the political, social, economic, and cultural landscape of Europe and beyond. It also shaped the course of history for the rest of the 20th century.
The human and economic costs of the war
The war caused immense suffering and loss for millions of people. It is estimated that about 10 million soldiers and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war. Millions more were wounded, disabled, or missing. The war also created millions of refugees and displaced persons, who had to flee their homes and countries. The war also had a devastating impact on the economy and the environment. The war destroyed farms, factories, railways, roads, bridges, and cities. It also consumed vast amounts of natural resources and created pollution and waste. The war also disrupted trade and commerce and caused inflation and debt. The total cost of the war is estimated to be about $337 billion (in 1918 dollars), which is equivalent to about $6.8 trillion (in 2020 dollars).
The peace treaties and the reshaping of Europe
The war ended with the armistice of November 11, 1918, which stopped the fighting on the Western Front. However, the formal peace treaties that ended the war were signed in 1919 and 1920. The most important and controversial of these treaties was the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28, 1919, between Germany and the Allies. The treaty imposed harsh terms on Germany, such as accepting full responsibility for the war, paying reparations to the Allies, giving up its colonies and territories, reducing its army and navy, and banning it from joining a military alliance with Austria. The treaty also created new countries in Europe, such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The treaty also established the League of Nations, which was an international organization that aimed to prevent future wars and promote cooperation among nations.
The other peace treaties that ended the war were the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), which dealt with Austria; the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine (1919), which dealt with Bulgaria; the Treaty of Trianon (1920), which dealt with Hungary; the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), which dealt with Turkey; and the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), which revised the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres after a Turkish nationalist revolt. These treaties also imposed territorial changes and restrictions on the defeated countries.
The peace treaties that ended the First World War were meant to create a lasting peace and a new order in Europe. However, they also created resentment and bitterness among the defeated countries, especially Germany, which felt humiliated and betrayed by the treaty. They also created new conflicts and tensions among the victorious countries, especially France and Britain, which had different interests and visions for Europe. They also failed to address some of the underlying causes of the war, such as nationalism, imperialism, and militarism.
The rise of new ideologies and movements
The war also had a profound impact on the political and social landscape of Europe and beyond. It challenged some of the old ideas and values that had dominated before the war, such as monarchy, aristocracy, liberalism, and conservatism. It also gave rise to new ideologies and movements that sought to offer alternative visions for society and politics.
and Mongolia. Communism also posed a threat to the capitalist and democratic countries, which feared the spread of communism and its influence on their workers and colonies.
Another ideology that emerged after the war was fascism, which was based on the ideas of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler and advocated a totalitarian state that glorified nationalism, militarism, and violence. Fascism gained popularity in Italy and Germany, which were dissatisfied with the outcome of the war and the peace treaties. Fascism also appealed to some people who were disillusioned with democracy and liberalism and who sought a strong leader and a sense of order and stability. Fascism also inspired movements or regimes in other countries, such as Spain, Portugal, Japan, Romania, Hungary, and Croatia. Fascism also posed a threat to the democratic and communist countries, which opposed its aggression and expansionism.
Other ideologies or movements that emerged or gained momentum after the war were socialism, which advocated a more democratic and egalitarian society where workers had more rights and benefits; democracy, which advocated a more representative and accountable government where people had more freedom and participation; nationalism, which advocated a more independent and sovereign state where people had more pride and identity; feminism, which advocated a more equal and emancipated society where women had more rights and opportunities; pacifism, which advocated a more peaceful and cooperative world where war was avoided or abolished; and modernism, which advocated a more innovative and experimental culture where art, literature, music, and science challenged the traditional norms and conventions.
The legacy of the war for the 20th century
The First World War had a lasting impact on the history of the 20th century and beyond. It shaped the course of events that followed it, such as the rise of totalitarian regimes, the Second World War, the Cold War, the decolonization of Africa and Asia, the creation of international organizations such as the United Nations and the European Union, the development of nuclear weapons and space exploration, the emergence of human rights and environmental movements, and the globalization of economy and culture. It also influenced the memory and identity of generations of people who lived through it or learned about it. It also inspired countless works of art, literature, music, film, and commemoration that reflected on its meaning and significance.
How to Download a Pdf File About the First World War
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The sources and websites that offer free pdf files about the war
There are many sources and websites that offer free pdf files about the First World War. Some of them are:
Wikipedia: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that contains articles on various topics, including the First World War. Wikipedia articles can be converted into pdf files by clicking on the "Download as PDF" option on the left sidebar of any article page. Wikipedia articles can provide a general overview and summary of the war, as well as links to other sources and websites for further reading.
Project Gutenberg: Project Gutenberg is a free online library that contains thousands of books in different languages and formats, including pdf files. Project Gutenberg books can be downloaded by clicking on the "Download" option on any book page. Project Gutenberg books can provide more detailed and in-depth information and analysis of the war, as well as personal accounts and stories from people who experienced it.
Internet Archive: Internet Archive is a free online archive that contains millions of books, documents, audio files, video files, images, and websites from different periods and genres, including the First World War. Internet Archive files can be downloaded by clicking on the "Download Options" option on any file page. Internet Archive files can provide a wide range of perspectives and viewpoints on the war, as well as historical and cultural context and background.
The steps to download a pdf file about the war
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